Town Council of Csíkszereda, Romania

Mayor: Róbert Kálmán Ráduly

Csíkszereda (Romanian Miercurea Ciuc, German Szeklerburg, Latin Sicolsburgum) Szekely city of Romania, Harghita County. It was the seat of Csíkszék, later from 1878 of Csík County and today the seat of Harghita County, since 1971 it is a city of county rank. In 1891 Csütörökfalva, Martonfalva (with the area of Mikó Castle were annexed), in 1939 Csíkzsögöd was also annexed, temporarily separated Kormositanya in 1956. 1959 Csobotfalva and Várdotfalva together with the name of Csíksomlyó were annexed and in 1959 also Csíktaploca. Since 1968 the settlements includes Hargitafürdő, Csiba and Zsögödfürdő. In 2002 it had 41 852 inhabitants, 34 217 of which were Hungarian and 7234 Romanian. Csíkszereda is one of the coldest cities in Romania. In winter the temperature can sink below -30 ° C, making it ideal for winter sports. On the ice rink named after Vákár Lajos plays the hockey team named Sport Club Csíkszeredaplays, one of the strongest teams in Romania. Another pride of the city is the Csík beer, which many people take one of the best beer in Romania.

Location

The town is situated 100 km north from Brasov, on the left terraces of the Olt at the foot of the mountain Nagysomlyó (1033 m). Originally there were several small settlements, which were named according to tradition after the days of the week. n. l. 46 ° 21? 0 '', e. l. 25 ° 48? 0 ''

The origin of its name

The prefix refers to the name of the former county. It is thought to come from the ancient Hungarian name and is considered to be persons whose antecedents can be the Turkish strip (= limit) or the Kazakh strip (= limit) noun. The last part of the name refers to the weekly market on Wednesday. Today's name was first mentioned in 1558. The Romanian name is a loan translation from Hungarian.

History

The surrounding was initially a peaty, waterlogged area. The first castle was built in the 11th century, and was probably destroyed during riots in the 16th century. Next to the pre-existing Somlyó (1333), Taploca and Zsögöd (12-13. century) fairs were held on Wednesday. The first known authentic document confirming the existence of a market town of Csíkszereda dated August 5 1558, the issuer was János Zsigmond, the Prince's mother, Queen Isabella, who exempts the residents from paying any other tax but the one payable to the Turkish port.

Csíkszereda had the rights of a country town in old times. The first settlement must have existed in the first half of the 15th century. The city annexed three villages: Csíksomlyó (1333), Csíktaploca and Csíkzsögöd in the 12-13th century.

Csíkszereda emerged at the crossing of the roads from the north-south and east-west directions as the Wednesday's Day Fair site. It is the name of the city as well. Count Ferenc Mikó Hídvégi (1585-1635) - a counselor of Gábor Bethlen, the great Prince of Transylvania, was a diplomat and chronicler. The Captain General of Csík- began to build the castle named after him 26 April 1623. The castle won its current form of during reconstruction to be held between 1714-1716, during the leadership of the Imperial General Steinville, as a stone inscription above the entrance gate evidenced it as well.

The area of Csík, with Csíkszereda in it is traditionally one of the Transylvanian strongholds of the Catholic religion. In Somlyó there has been a Franciscan high school since 1630, and from 1676 John Kájoni’s famous printing house functioned here.

In 1643 during a military census (Lustro) 44 head of families, a total of 108 persons were listed, 25 different family names were recorded. The city's first professional communities were established in the 17th century, the shoemakers' guild for example on 4 November 1649 as it is mentioned in György Rákóczi II.'s leave letter. 1661 is a sad year in Csík chronicles. Since The Csíks took part in the Polish campaign launched by George Rákóczi II without the consent of Ali, Pasha of Timisoara, Turkish-Mongol armies attacked and devastated Csík. The famous Turkish traveler and historian Evliya Çelebi writes about the attack and the participants in it. János Kájoni, a Franciscan monk in Csíksomlyó recorded the following: "Paganism kidnapped the whole Csík."

In 1650, 1665, 1677 and 1707 in Csíkszereda general meetings were held where the constitutions and decisions of the monarch were promulgated. The 1707 meeting decided to send a common deputy of Csíkszék and Háromszék to Ferenc Rákóczi II, the leader of the anti-Habsburg War of Independence. The city's development was hampered by geographical isolation, its border guard status, as well as the consequences of the legal system of the Székely inheritance. In 1764 the great majority of men were called into the border-warden regiment.

The city's first primary school was established in 1751. The 1721 census recorded 49 households, around 250 inhabitants. In 1758 at the time of the construction of the Csíkszereda Roman Catholic church (still standing) the city's population had risen to 450. In József Teleki’s "travel quotations " (1799) he already mentioned 83 houses. During the 1848 Hungarian War of Independence Bem appointed Sándor Gál was as a Commander for Szekely ground troops, whose headquarters was the Mikó castle. The Szekler military leader had sent several Csík battalions to Bem's army. In 1849 Sándor Petőfi visited the city. His wife, Julia writes that "Csíkszereda, Kézdivásárhely and their surroundings are beautiful."

The first newspaperof the city was published in 1849, with the title "War Journal". In 1851 the hospital was established. The 1850 census in Csíkszereda mentions 229 houses, 961 inhabitants, 914 are Hungarian and 15 Armenian, 14 Roma, 12 German and six of other nationalities. In the mid-19th century Csíkszereda strengthened: Martonfalva was annexed and in 1891 Csütörtökfalva as well. Inspite of all these Balázs Orbán also describes Szereda as such a little village, there are several larger urban outfits in Csík.

The railway through the city was opened to traffic on April 5 1897 and this resulted in the establishment of the first advanced industrial units. Construction of the tram network has begun in 1911. The city continued to grow in this century, Zsögöd was annexed 1920, and Csíksomlyó and Csíktaploca in 1959. Csíkszereda became the county seat in 1878 because of its growing role in public life. The seal, the flag and the coat of arms of the city were mentioned by Károly Benkő in his book: Csík Gyergyó Kászon: "... it is like three forget-me-not or heart-shaped copper pots engraved on the left hand C and S lettering on the right hand, and in a round written: Sigillum Opidi Csík Szereda ... The flag of the city may be more recent: the two white strips are separated by a narrow red strip. On the top there are two white forget-me-nots, on the bottom one ... ". The coat of arms is likely from the 1920s, made of stone, it is located today in the Szekler Museum's collection. The April 5 1897 inaugurated railway has brought about significant changes: small wood- and light engineering units were built. The skyline changed soon. In 1888 the hospital was rebuilt, in 1898 today's town hall was finished and in 1911 the building of today's Áron Márton Grammar School, where the former 400 year-old school stood that time. In 1910 the population of Csíkszereda was 3701, 3591of which Hungarian, 45 German, 44 Romanian and 21 other nationalities. In 1930 the population had increased to 4807 people including 3796 Hungarian, 598 Romanian, 253 Jews, 71 German and 89 other nationalities.

From the 1920s the regular meeting of the Thousand Szekler Girls were held. Csíkszereda surviving the historic storms of World War II still remained a rural center. From 1960 onwards the economy of the city was characterized by forced industrialization. The main industrial sectors were timber processing, light industry and machine manufacturing industry. From 1968 as it became the newly created seat of Harghita County as a result of the central industrial forcing policies the population of the city has changed significantly: According to the 1992 census (7 January) the total population is 46 029. The ethnic composition is: 38 204 Hungarian, 7451 Romanian, 228 Gypsy, 67 German and 79 other nationalities. In the years after the 1989 events the transition to market economy followed, which was initially characterized by the overall macroeconomic instability. The trends prevailing in the country: Csíkszereda has not escaped the three-digit inflation, decreased production, high unemployment rates, the growth of the deficit of the budget and of the balance of payment, in 1992 reaching a low point. It released in 1990 the private sector, which has developed at an increasing rate, and has become dominant in the economic life of the city. The city is above the national average in respect of the proportion of the foreign capital.

Places of interest

• Csíkszereda Makovecz church interior

• The Áron Márton High School

• The Mikó Castle, now the County Museum operates there.

• the Roman Catholic Church dedicated to the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, was built in 1758 in Baroque style.

• Greek Catholic church built in 1930, today the Orthodox Church.

• The former county hall was built in 1886 in eclectic style.

• Palace of Justice in 1892, eclectic style.

• The Orthodox church was built between 1929 and 1935 in neo-Byzantine style.

• Áron Márton's Grammar School was built between 1909 and 1911 in Art Nouveau style. The former Roman Catholic High School has the name of a famous former student since 1990.

• Today's modern city center was formed by decomposition of the old center between 1970 and 1990.

• The city has three mineral water baths, the Szereda,in the residential area of the ice rink and in Zsögöd.

• The new no.1 Roman Catholic parish church of Csíkszereda was designed by Imre Makovecz.

Zsögöd - part of the city:

• Roman Catholic Church, which was built in the 15th century in Gothic style in honor of the Holy Trinity, 1707 reshaped in Baroque style, the tower was built in 1800. The statue of the Virgin Mary is of the same age with the one of Csíksomlyó, made around 1520.

• The Protestant church was built in 1875.

• The Miko manor house built in the early 19th century neo-classical style.

• Imre Nagy Gallery.

• Zsögödi bath

Csíksomlyó - part of the city

• Csíksomlyó pilgrimage church and monastery

• St. John Nepomuk Chapel stands on the left side of the square in front of the church, it was built in 1767, it stands near the May 17 1567 victory monument (Tolvajos Tető), which was brought here around 1870.

• Three chapels stand on the hillside above the church:

Salvator's Chapel from the 15th century with medieval details, the one built to commemorate the victory at Belgrade in 1456. It was rebuilt in 1780 and in 1878 it was expanded. Once surrounded by a stone wall, a guardian lived in the nearby hermitage.

The Suffering Jesus chapel must have been built in the 15-17th centuries, the pilgrims are waiting for the sunrise close to this place.

• The Chapel of St. Anthony was built between 1750 and 1773 at Christina Haller Hallerkői’s expense of.

• Next to the monastery the former headquarters of Csíkszék was built between 1825 and 1841, today it functions as pulmonic sanitarium and hospitals.

• The former Roman Catholic high school was built in 1727, among its walls many celebrities studied. It is children's home today.

• The mineral water spring coming in the valley of Lok is very poular.

etc.).

Famous people

  • Sándor Szopos, painter and József Venczel, village researcher were born here.
  • Imre Nagy, painter was born in that time still separate Csíkzsögöd in 1893.
  • Péter Pál Domokos, teacher, historian, ethnographer, researcher of the Csango culture was born in Csíksomlyó in 1901.
  • István Kozma, army lieutenant general was born on September 9 1896 here. 
  • László Müller, soldier died in December of 1989 in the revolution.

Mayor: Robert Kalman Ráduly


Webpage: www.szereda.ro

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